Effectiveness and safety of early treatment with spironolactone for new-onset acute heart failure

Link to article at PubMed

J Hosp Med. 2024 Feb 28. doi: 10.1002/jhm.13317. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and safety of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) in acute heart failure (HF) is uncertain. We sought to describe the prescription of spironolactone during acute HF and whether early treatment is effective and safe in a real-world setting.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult (≥18 years) nonpregnant patients hospitalized with new-onset HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, defined by ejection fraction ≤40%) within 15 Kaiser Permanente Southern California medical centers between 2016 and 2021. Early treatment was defined by spironolactone prescription at discharge. The primary effectiveness outcome was a composite of HF readmission or all-cause mortality at 180 days. Safety outcomes were hypotension and hyperkalemia at 90 days.

RESULTS: Among 2318 HFrEF patients, 368 (15.9%) were treated with spironolactone at discharge. After 1:2 propensity score matching, 354 early treatment and 708 delayed/no treatment patients were included in the analysis. The median age was 63 (IQR: 52-74) years; 61.6% were male, and 38.6% were White. By 90 days, ~20% had crossed over in the two groups. Early treatment was not associated with the composite outcome at 180 days (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.56-1.17]), but a trend towards benefit by 365 days that did not reach statistical significance (0.78 [0.58-1.06]). Early treatment was also associated with hyperkalemia (subdistribution HR [95% CI]: 2.33 [1.30-4.18]) but not hypotension (0.93 [0.51-1.72]).

CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment with spironolactone at discharge for new-onset HFrEF in a real-world setting did not reduce the risk of HF readmission or mortality in the first year after discharge. The risk of hyperkalemia was increased.

PMID:38415888 | DOI:10.1002/jhm.13317

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