Comparison of Empiric Antibiotic Treatment Regimens for Hospitalized, Non-severe Community-acquired Pneumonia: A Retrospective, Multicenter Cohort Study

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Ther. 2024 Feb 24:S0149-2918(24)00020-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2024.01.009. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Consensus guidelines for hospitalized, non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recommend empiric macrolide + β-lactam or respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy in patients with no risk factors for resistant organisms. In patients with allergies or contraindications, doxycycline + β-lactam is a recommended alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in outcomes among guideline-recommended regimens in this population.

METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included patients ≥18 years of age with CAP who received respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy, empiric macrolide + β-lactam, or doxycycline + β-lactam. Major exclusion criteria included patients with immunocompromising conditions, requiring vasopressors or invasive mechanical ventilation within 48 hours of admission, and receiving less than 2 days of total antibiotic therapy. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included clinical failure, 14- and 30-day hospital readmission, and hospital length of stay. Safety outcomes included incidence of new Clostridioides difficile infection and aortic aneurysm ruptures.

FINDINGS: Of 4685 included patients, 1722 patients received empiric respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy, 159 received empiric doxycycline + β-lactam, and 2804 received empiric macrolide + β-lactam. Incidence of in-hospital mortality was not observed to be significantly different among empiric regimens (doxycycline + β-lactam group: 1.9% vs macrolide + β-lactam: 1.9% vs respiratory fluoroquinolone monotherapy: 1.5%, P = 0.588). No secondary outcomes were observed to differ significantly among groups.

IMPLICATIONS: We observed no differences in clinical or safety outcomes among three guideline-recommended empiric CAP regimens. Empiric doxycycline + β-lactam may be a safe empiric regimen for hospitalized CAP patients with non-severe CAP, although additional research is needed to corroborate these observations with larger samples.

PMID:38403509 | DOI:10.1016/j.clinthera.2024.01.009

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *