Eradication of community-onset MRSA carriage: a narrative review

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2024 Jan 10:S1198-743X(24)00009-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2024.01.003. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization increases infection risk in both patients and healthy individuals. Decolonization therapy has been proven to reduce S. aureus infections, but data on the effectiveness of individual decolonization strategies in community-onset MRSA carriage are scarce.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this narrative review was to summarize the evidence on strategies for the elimination of MRSA colonization in community-onset MRSA carriers.

SOURCES: Pubmed database was searched for studies on MRSA eradication, from inception to July 2023.

CONTENT: Topical therapy is proven to be effective in nasal-only carriage and in temporary load reduction. Mupirocin nasal ointment in combination with chlorhexidine body wash is highly effective in nasal-only MRSA carriers in the community as well. In patients with extra-nasal colonization, addition of orally administered antibiotics likely increases success rates compared to topical therapy alone. Studies on systemic treatment of extra-nasal MRSA decolonization are subject to a high heterogeneity of antimicrobial agents, treatment duration, and control groups. The majority of evidence supports the use of a combination of topical therapy with rifampin and another antimicrobial agent. Decolonization treatment with probiotics is a promising novel non-antibiotic strategy. However, achieving long-term decolonization is more likely in countries with low MRSA prevalence, given the risk of recolonization in a context of high MRSA prevalence.

IMPLICATIONS: The decision to pursue community-onset MRSA eradication treatment in the individual patient should be based on the combination of the treatment objective (short-term bacterial load reduction in healthcare settings versus long-term eradication in community settings), and the likelihood of successful decolonization. The latter is influenced by both individual risk factors for treatment failure, and the risk of recolonization. The addition of a combination of systemic antibiotics is rational for extra-nasal long-term decolonization. To determine the most effective systemic antimicrobial agents in MRSA decolonization, more research is needed.

PMID:38215977 | DOI:10.1016/j.cmi.2024.01.003

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