Chronic Kidney Disease: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Link to article at PubMed

Am Fam Physician. 2023 Dec;108(6):554-561.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects approximately 15% of the U.S. population, and many people are unaware of their diagnosis. Screening may be considered for patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, age 60 years and older, family history of kidney disease, previous acute kidney injury, or preeclampsia. Diagnosis and staging of CKD are based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), excessive urinary albumin excretion, or evidence of kidney parenchymal damage lasting more than three months. eGFR should be determined using the CKD-EPI creatinine equation without the race variable. Risk calculators are available to estimate the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. When possible, serum cystatin C should be measured to confirm eGFR in patients with CKD. Blood pressure should be maintained at less than 140/90 mm Hg, with a systolic blood pressure target of 120 mm Hg or less for patients tolerant of therapy, using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and metformin should be considered in patients with CKD and type 2 diabetes who have not reached their glycemic goal. Intravenous iodinated contrast media temporarily reduces eGFR and should be avoided in patients with advanced CKD. Interdisciplinary management of patients with CKD is important for reducing morbidity and mortality, and patients at high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease should be referred to a nephrologist.


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