Comparison of Direct Oral Anticoagulants vs Vitamin K Antagonists After Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement

Link to article at PubMed

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2024 Jan 16;83(2):334-346. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.10.031.


BACKGROUND: There is currently no established recommendation for antithrombotic treatment following transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). However, based on the analogy with surgical mitral bioprosthesis, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are predominantly used.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare bleeding and thrombotic events associated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or VKAs in a prospective cohort of TMVR patients.

METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients who underwent transseptal TMVR using a SAPIEN family prosthesis at our center between 2011 and 2023. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bleeding. VKAs were administered to patients until October 2019, after which DOACs were prescribed. The median follow-up was 4.7 months (Q1-Q3: 2.6-6.7 months).

RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were included. The mean age was 65 ± 18.5 years, and 103 patients (66%) were women. The median EuroSCORE II was 7.48% (Q1-Q3: 3.80%-12.97%). Of the participants, 20.5% received DOACs and 79.5% were treated with VKAs. The primary outcome was observed in 50 (40%) patients in the VKA group and 3 (9%) patients in the DOAC group (adjusted HR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.74; P = 0.02). Treatment with DOAC was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay. No significant differences were found in terms of thrombotic events, major vascular complications, stroke, or death.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of DOACs after TMVR, compared with VKAs, appears to reduce the risk of bleeding complications and decrease the length of hospital stay for patients, without a significant increase in the risk of thrombotic events.

PMID:38199711 | DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2023.10.031

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