A standardized educational program to improve peripheral vascular access outcomes in the emergency department: A quasi-experimental pre-post trial

Link to article at PubMed

J Vasc Access. 2024 Jan 5:11297298231219776. doi: 10.1177/11297298231219776. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Difficult intravenous access (DIVA) patients are known to have disproportionately poorer vascular access outcomes. The impact of education and training on vascular access outcomes in this vulnerable population is unclear. We aim to demonstrate the success of a program (Operation (O) STICK) on improving vascular access outcomes in DIVA patients.

METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental pre-post interventional study conducted at a tertiary care emergency department (ED) with 120,000 annual visits and 1100 hospital beds. Adult patients requiring an ultrasound-guided (US) peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) in the ED were eligible participants. Traditional (palpation method) insertions were excluded. Using multivariable linear regression and inverse probability weighted (IPW) linear regression, the standard group inclusive of PIVCs inserted by staff without formalized OSTICK training were compared to the interventional group inclusive of PIVCs inserted by staff with training and competency in the OSTICK training model.

RESULTS: Data were collected over two time intervals: 4/1/21-9/30/21 (pre; non-OSTICK) and 10/1/22-3/31/23 (post; OSTICK). 2375 DIVA patients included 1035 (43.6%) non-OSTICK and 1340 (56.4%) OSTICK PIVCs. Overall, OSTICK PIVCs had a higher proportion of upper arm or forearm placements (94.6% vs 57.4%; p < 0.001), 20 gauge catheters (97.1% vs 92.3%; p < 0.001), and left-sided placements (54.4% vs 43.5%; p < 0.001). 62.7% of OSTICK PIVCs were placed by ED technicians, compared to 25.5% in the non-OSTICK group (p < 0.001). OSTICK PIVCs were placed on the first attempt 86.2% of the time and by the second attempt 95.4% of the time. In a subanalysis of 1343 hospitalized patients (689 (51.3%) OSTICK vs 654 (48.7%) non-OSTICK), OSTICK PIVCs survived for a median of 92% of the patient's hospital length of stay, compared to non-OSTICK PIVCs at 74% (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Formalized vascular access training in the ED leads to improved adherence to best practices for PIVC insertion, high success of cannulation with minimal attempts, and improved PIVC functionality during hospitalization for DIVA patients. Importantly, these outcomes are sustainable as they were captured 12 months after implementation of the program.

PMID:38183178 | DOI:10.1177/11297298231219776

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