Correlates of Spontaneous Blood Pressure Reduction Following Severe Inpatient Hypertension Development

Link to article at PubMed

Am J Hypertens. 2023 Nov 21:hpad112. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpad112. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Severe hypertension (sHTN) is prevalent in 10% of hospitalized patients and treatment guidelines are lacking. As such, patients who develop sHTN might unnecessarily receive antihypertensive medications which could lead to worse outcomes. Our goal was to investigate correlates of spontaneous blood pressure (BP) reduction to help guide future treatment decisions and avoid harm associated with aggressive BP treatment.

METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults between 2016 and 2020 who developed sHTN, SBP >180 or DBP >110 mmHg, after admission. Spontaneous BP reduction was defined as a SBP <160 and a DBP <100 mmHg achieved within 3 hours of sHTN in the absence of antihypertensive therapy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify correlates of spontaneous BP reduction.

RESULTS: Of the 12,825 patients who developed sHTN, 44.2% had spontaneous BP reduction. After adjustment, we found that patients most likely to experience a BP drop received steroids before onset of sHTN (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.3 [1.09, 1.56]), had higher potassium levels on admission (OR: 1.2 [1.09, 1.24]) and were more likely to have a history of chronic pulmonary disease (OR: 1.1 [1.01, 1.18]) or cardiac arrythmia (OR: 1.1 [1.01, 1.18]). While numerically different, these differences were not clinically relevant.

CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that almost half the patients who develop sHTN have spontaneous BP reduction. Conventional clinical and demographic characteristics were not strong predictors of spontaneous BP reduction following sHTN development. More research is needed to confirm our findings and help guide treatment of sHTN.

PMID:37988620 | DOI:10.1093/ajh/hpad112

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