Renal safety and survival among acutely ill hospitalized patients treated by blockers of the Renin-Angiotensin axis or loop diuretics: a single-center retrospective analysis

Link to article at PubMed

Ren Fail. 2023;45(2):2282707. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2023.2282707. Epub 2023 Nov 17.


BACKGROUND: Concern exists regarding the renal safety of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during acute illness, especially in the presence of volume depletion and hemodynamic instability.

METHODS: We explored the impact of loop diuretics and RAS blockers on the likelihood of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) or acute kidney functional recovery (AKR) among inpatients. Adjusted odds ratio for AKI, AKR and mortality was calculated, using logistic regression models, with subgroup analysis for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min/1.73 m2, corrected for blood pressure measurements.

RESULTS: 53,289 patients were included. RAS blockade was associated with reduced adjusted odds ratio for both AKI (0.76, CI 0.70-0.83) AKR (0.55, 0.52-0.58), and mortality within 30 days (0.44, 0.41-0.48), whereas loop diuretics were associated with increased risk of AKI (3.75, 3.42-4.12) and mortality (1.71, 1.58-1.85) and reduced AKR (0.71, 0.66-0.75). Comparable impact of RAS blockers and loop diuretics on renal outcomes and death was found among 6,069 patients with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2. RAS inhibition and diuretics tended to increase the adjusted odds ratios for AKI and to reduce the likelihood of AKR in hypotensive patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Reduced blood pressure, RAS blockers and diuretics affect the odds of developing AKI or AKR among inpatients, suggesting possible disruption in renal functional reserve (RFR). As long as blood pressure is maintained, RAS inhibition seems to be safe and renoprotective in this population, irrespective of kidney function upon admission, and is associated with reduced mortality.

PMID:37975172 | DOI:10.1080/0886022X.2023.2282707

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