Naloxegol versus Methylnaltrexone for Opioid-Induced Constipation in Critically Ill Patients

Link to article at PubMed

Ann Pharmacother. 2023 Oct 26:10600280231205023. doi: 10.1177/10600280231205023. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Constipation impacts 58% to 83% of critically ill patients and is associated with increased time on mechanical ventilation, delirium, and increased length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU).

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enteral naloxegol (NGL) versus subcutaneous methylnaltrexone (MNTX) for the management of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in critically ill patients.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on adult patients admitted to the ICU who received a parenteral opioid infusion for at least 4 hours and experienced no bowel movement (BM) within the 48-hour period preceding the administration of NGL or MNTX. The primary outcome was time to first BM from the start of NGL or MNTX therapy. Secondary outcomes included number of BMs 72 hours following NGL or MNTX administration, ICU LOS, and cost-effectiveness.

RESULTS: After exclusion criteria were applied, 110 and 51 patients were included in the NGL and MNTX groups, respectively. With a 10% noninferiority margin, NGL was noninferior to MNTX (Wald statistic = 1.67; P = 0.047). Median time to first BM was 23.7 hours for NGL and 18.3 hours for MNTX patients. Median LOS was 14 days (NGL) and 12 days (MNTX), and the average number of BMs in 72 hours was 3.9 for NGL and 3.8 for MNTX. Using wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), the cost per BM for NGL and MNTX was $21.74 and $170.00, respectively.

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: This study determined that NGL and MNTX had similar time to BM. NGL appears to be a safe and effective alternative with cost-saving potential in treating OIC in critically ill patients.

PMID:37881915 | DOI:10.1177/10600280231205023

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