The Impact of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in Acute Pancreatitis: Analysis of 1.1 Million Hospitalizations and Review of the Literature

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Cureus. 2023 Aug 25;15(8):e44113. doi: 10.7759/cureus.44113. eCollection 2023 Aug.


Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common inflammatory disorder with acute onset and rapid progression. Studies have reported cardiac injury in patients with AP. It is often thought that stress cardiomyopathy can induce these changes leading to type 2 myocardial infarction (type 2 MI) in AP. Our study aims to assess the prevalence as well as the impact of type 2 MI on outcomes in patients with AP. Methods National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2016-2020 was used to identify adult patients (age>18) with acute pancreatitis. We excluded patients with STEMI, NSTEMI, pancreatic cancer, or chronic pancreatitis. Patients with missing demographics and mortality were also excluded. Patients were stratified into two groups, based on the presence of type 2 MI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of concomitant type 2 MI on mortality, sepsis, acute kidney injury (AKI), ICU admission, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) after adjusting for patient demographics, hospital characteristics, etiology of AP and the Elixhauser comorbidities. Results Of the 1.1 million patients in the study population, only 2315 patients had type 2 MI. The majority of the patients in the type 2 MI group were aged >65 years (49.2%, p<0.001), males (54.6%, p=0.63), White (67.6%, p=0.19), had Medicare insurance (55.5%, p<0.001), and were in the lowest income quartile (34.8%, p=0.12). Patients in the type 2 MI group had a higher incidence of mortality (5.4% vs 0.6%, p<0.001), sepsis (7.1% vs 3.7%, p<0.001), shock (9.3% vs 0.9%, p<0.001), AKI (42.9% vs. 11.8%, p<0.001) and ICU admission (12.1% vs 1.4%, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, patients in the type 2 MI group were noted to be at higher odds of mortality (aOR=2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.8, p<0.001). Patients in the type 2 MI group had a longer length of stay (adjusted coefficient=2.1 days; 95% CI 1.4-2.8; p<0.001) and higher total hospitalization charges (adjusted coefficient=$45,088; 95% CI $30,224-$59,952; p<0.001). Conclusion Although the prevalence of type 2 MI in AP is low, the presence of type 2 MI is associated with increased mortality and worse outcomes. Physicians should be aware of this association and these patients should be monitored carefully to prevent worse outcomes.

PMID:37750110 | PMC:PMC10518190 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.44113

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