Eur J Intern Med. 2023 Sep 18:S0953-6205(23)00333-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2023.09.013. Online ahead of print.
The optimal antimicrobial regimen for adults with respiratory failure due to Legionella pneumonia remains controversial. A systematic review was performed to assess the impact on outcomes comparing quinolones versus macrolides. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science between 2012 and 2022. It yielded 124 potentially articles and ten observational studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 4271 patients were included, 2879 (67 %) were male. A total of 1797 (42 %) subjects required intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 942 (52 %) mechanical ventilation. Fluoroquinolones and macrolides alone were administered in 1397 (33 %) and 1500 (35 %) subjects, respectively; combined therapy in 204 (4.8 %) patients. Overall mortality was 7.4 % (319 patients), with no difference between antibiotics. When data from the three studies with severe pneumonia were pooled together, mortality with fluoroquinolones alone was statistically superior to macrolides alone (72.8 % vs 30.8 %, p value 0.027). Hospital length of stay and complications were comparable. Our findings suggest that macrolides and quinolones were comparable for hospitalized Legionella pneumonia. However, in severe pneumonia, a randomized clinical trial is an unmet clinical need. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42023389308.