J Clin Med. 2023 Aug 29;12(17):5635. doi: 10.3390/jcm12175635.
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is one of the most important life-threatening complications in haemato-oncology. Our objective was to report all-cause mortality rates in patients ill with a hematological malignancy (HM) hospitalized with a first FN episode and to identify predictors for mortality. We conducted a historical retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with an HM, >18 years of age, admitted between January 2012 and August 2018 for a first episode of FN. Data on all-cause mortality 12 months after admission for FN were obtained. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to describe mortality during the follow-up period. Univariate and multivariable analyses identified predictors for 1,3 and 12-month mortality. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (mean age 69.5, 49.4% males) were included. Overall, 54 patients died (15.8%, 25.9%, and 34.1% died after 1, 3, and 12 months, respectively). Lower serum albumin, higher serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), older age, higher temperature, and lower absolute lymphocyte count at admission were independent predictors of all-cause mortality after 12 months. Further studies are needed to confirm our results and identify therapeutic strategies to improve survival.