Clin Cardiol. 2023 Aug 30. doi: 10.1002/clc.24141. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of arteriosclerosis (vascular function) is important when treating heart failure (HF). Vascular dysfunction is associated with anemia through renal function and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) caused by vascular dysfunction is also associated with HF prognosis. However, how anemia and BPV may affect HF prognosis is unclear.
METHODS: Between January 2012 and July 2018, 214 patients with HF were hospitalized. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) as an index of arteriosclerosis of these patients was measured. The patients were divided into the elevated and preserved CAVI groups. We investigated the factors related to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) as cardiovascular death or rehospitalization within 1 year after discharge.
RESULTS: In the elevated CAVI group, significant differences in body mass index (BMI), BPV, left ventricular dimension, and hemoglobin levels were observed between patients with and without MACEs. In the preserved CAVI group, significant differences in BMI, diastolic/mean BP, and hemoglobin levels were observed between those with and without MACEs. The multivariate analysis showed an independent association between hemoglobin levels and MACE occurrence in both the elevated and preserved CAVI groups (elevated CAVI group: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.800, p = .045 [model 1], HR = 0.802, p = .035 [model 2]; preserved CAVI group: HR = 0.783, p = .049 [model 1], HR = 0.752, p = .023 [model 2], and HR = 0.754, p = .024 [model 3]).
CONCLUSIONS: Anemia was independently associated with HF prognosis with or without arteriosclerosis.