Curr Opin Crit Care. 2023 Jul 31. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000001082. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary and intravascular catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CA-BSIs) represent an important clinical entity in the intensive care unit (ICU) being associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review was to examine the recently published data on epidemiology and management of CA-BSI and other primary BSIs specifically within the context of the ICU.
RECENT FINDINGS: In critically ill patients, the pooled prevalence of primary and CA-BSI from contemporary studies was 19.7-40.7% and 26.4-37.3% of all BSIs, respectively. Failure to achieve source control (i.e., removal of catheter in CA-BSI) is associated with higher mortality. Higher severity scores and durations of ICU stay and catheter insertion are well established risk factors for CA-BSI. The use of prevention bundles when inserting a central venous line is able to reduce CA-BSI incidence from 4 to 1.6 episodes per 1000 central venous catheter days. Differential time-to-positivity of paired blood cultures may assist in the diagnosis of CA-BSI.
SUMMARY: Primary BSI is frequently observed in ICU cohorts and has a poor effect on outcome. Surveillance for BSI among patients admitted to ICUs is fundamental to inform healthcare service delivery, design preventive approaches, to track resistance, and detect emerging pathogens.