Physiol Int. 2023 Aug 28. doi: 10.1556/2060.2023.00211. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic hepatic failure can lead to increased mortality in critically ill and perioperative patients. Understanding the pathophysiological principles of these conditions in critically ill patients is of great importance to reduce mortality. The aim of our systematic literature review was to identify all randomized controlled trials on any intervention that had a statistically significant documented reduction in mortality in patients with hepatic failure.
METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases for pertinent studies on January 1st 2021. The following studies were included: randomized controlled trials; studies investigating adult critically ill or perioperative patient populations with any form of hepatic failure; mortality as primary or secondary outcome; and statistically significant differences in mortality between the examined groups.
RESULTS: We finally found nine trials in our systematic review on the effect of antibiotic administration and infectious diseases among patients with cirrhosis (three studies); immune modulation after liver transplantation (one study); administration of colloids in cirrhotic patients (one study); the effect of high-volume plasma exchange in acute liver failure (one study); administration of N-acetylcysteine in acute liver failure (one study); and treatment with terlipressin (two studies).
CONCLUSION: In the present review we found only nine randomized studies with a documented survival benefit in patients with liver failure. Strategies that most improved mortality were associated with the outcome of sepsis and renal function.