Am J Med Sci. 2023 Aug 26:S0002-9629(23)01317-4. doi: 10.1016/j.amjms.2023.08.008. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Congestion is the main cause of morbidity and a prime determinant of survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the assessment of congestion is subjective and estimation of plasma volume (ePV) has been suggested as a more objective measure of congestion. This study aimed to explore the relationships and interactions between ePV, the severity of congestion and survival using a nationwide registry.
METHODS: Of the 1054 patients with HF enrolled in the registry, 769 had sufficient data to calculate ePV (using the Duarte, Kaplan, and Hakim equations) and relative plasma volume status (rPVS), and these patients were subsequently included in the present analysis. The severity of congestion was assessed using a 6-point congestion score (CS). Patients were divided into three groups according to the degree of congestion.
RESULTS: Out of four equations tested, only ePVDuarte and rPVS were statistically higher in patients with severe congestion as compared to patients with no congestion (p<0.001 for both). Both ePVDuarte (r=0.197, p<0.001) and rPVS (r=0.153, p<0.001) showed statistically significant correlations with CS and both had a modest accuracy (70.4% for ePVDuarte and 69.4% for rPVS) to predict a CS ≥3. After a median follow up of 496 days, both ePVDuarte (OR:1.14,95%CI:1.03-1.26, p=0.01) and rPVS (OR:1.02, 95%CI:1.00-1.03, p=0.03) were associated with all-cause mortality after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. However, none of the indices were associated with mortality following the introduction of CS to the models (p>0.05 for both).
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ePVDuarte and rPVS were indicators of congestion but with a limited robustness, and either parameter could be clinically useful when a comprehensive clinical evaluation of congestion is not feasible.