Crit Care Res Pract. 2023 Aug 18;2023:8456673. doi: 10.1155/2023/8456673. eCollection 2023.
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation has negative consequences for critically ill patients and that performing tracheostomy (TQT) could help to reduce these consequences. The ideal period for performing TQT is still not clear in the literature since few studies have compared clinical aspects between patients undergoing early or late TQT.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the mortality rate, length of stay in the intensive care unit, length of hospital stay, and number of days free of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing TQT before or after ten days of orotracheal intubation.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study carried out by collecting data from patients admitted to an intensive care unit between January 2008 and December 2017. Patients who underwent TQT were divided into an early TQT group (i.e., time to TQT ≤ 10 days) or late TQT (i.e., time to TQT > 10 days) and the clinical outcomes of the two groups were compared.
RESULTS: Patients in the early TQT group had a shorter ICU stay than the late TQT group (19 ± 16 vs. 32 ± 22 days, p < 0.001), a shorter stay in the hospital (42 ± 32 vs. 52 ± 50 days, p < 0.001), a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (17 ± 14 vs. 30 ± 18 days, p < 0.001), and a higher proportion of survivors in the ICU outcome (57% vs. 46%, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy performed within 10 days of mechanical ventilation provides several benefits to the patient and should be considered by the multidisciplinary team as a part of their clinical practice.