SGLT2 Inhibitors vs. GLP-1 Agonists to Treat the Heart, the Kidneys and the Brain

Link to article at PubMed

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2023 Jul 30;10(8):322. doi: 10.3390/jcdd10080322.


Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1-R) agonists are novel therapeutic agents used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, large-scale randomized clinical trials have been conducted to assess the cardiovascular safety of these medications. The findings of these trials have revealed that both SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1-R agonists exhibit favorable cardioprotective effects, including reduction in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, a decreased risk of chronic kidney disease progression, a decrease in hospitalization for heart failure (HF), an effect shown by SGLT2 inhibitors, and stroke prevention, an effect shown by GLP-1-R agonists. Based on the results from above studies, the European and American Diabetes Associations have issued new recommendations strongly endorsing the use of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1-R agonists in combination with metformin for patients with T2DM who have additional cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities or risk factors. The primary aim of this combined therapy is to prevent CV events. Although both medication groups offer beneficial effects, they demonstrate slightly different profiles. SGLT2 inhibitors have exhibited better effects regarding a reduced incidence of HF, whereas GLP-1-R agonists have shown a reduced risk of CV events, particularly stroke. Moreover, recent European Society of Cardiology as well as American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines of HF treatment stressed the importance of SGLT2 inhibitor administration in patients with HF regardless of T2DM. In this context, we present and discuss the outcomes of the most recent trials investigating the impact of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1-R agonists on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients, both with and without T2DM. Additionally, we explore the synergistic effects of combining SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1-R agonists in patients with cardiovascular disease.

PMID:37623335 | DOI:10.3390/jcdd10080322

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