Drugs. 2023 Aug 4. doi: 10.1007/s40265-023-01923-3. Online ahead of print.
Cardiac arrhythmias remain a common cause of death and disability. Antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) and antiarrhythmic agents remain a cornerstone of current cardiac arrhythmia management, despite moderate efficacy and the potential for significant adverse proarrhythmic effects. Due to conceptual, regulatory and financial considerations, the number of novel antiarrhythmic targets and agents in the development pipeline has decreased substantially during the last few decades. However, several promising candidates remain and there are exciting developments in repurposing and reformulating already existing drugs for indications related to cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses the key conceptual considerations for the development of new antiarrhythmic agents, summarizes new compounds and formulations currently in clinical development for rhythm control of atrial fibrillation, and highlights the potential for drug repurposing. Finally, future directions in AAD development are discussed. Together with an ever-increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias, these components support a cautiously optimistic outlook towards improved pharmacological treatment opportunities for patients suffering from cardiac arrhythmias.