Med Clin North Am. 2023 Sep;107(5):945-961. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2023.05.009.
One of the most common reasons for patient visits in the outpatient practice is lower extremity swelling. Non-cardiac etiologies are the most frequent reason for these encounters. The approach to this patient population will focus on the 7 key questions to initiate the gathering of historical information on the etiology of leg swelling. Figures and tables will complement the text for diagnosing lower extremity swelling. In this article, the common non-cardiac etiologies will be reviewed which include medications, chronic venous insufficiency, lymphatic disease, lipedema, venous thrombosis, and musculoskeletal etiologies.