Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2023 Jul 28;22(1):191. doi: 10.1186/s12933-023-01896-3.
BACKGROUND: Given the cumulative evidence on the effectiveness of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) on chronic heart failure, demand is emerging for further information on their effects in patients who are hospitalized for acute heart failure. However, there is still limited evidence about the class effect of SGLT2is on acute heart failure. We investigated whether initiating treatment with SGLT2is after an episode of acute heart failure reduces the risks of post-discharge heart failure readmission or cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes who hospitalized for heart failure, using Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment database (2015-2020). The exposure was defined as initiation of SGLT2is during hospitalization or at discharge. We assessed hazards of post-discharge heart failure readmission and cardiovascular death at 1-year, and 30-, 60-, and 90-day from the date of discharge in the SGLT2is users and non-users. Cox proportional hazards models with propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
RESULTS: Among 56,343 patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for heart failure, 29,290 patients were included in the study cohort (mean [SD] age, 74.1 [10.8] years; 56.1% women); 818 patients (2.8%) were prescribed SGLT2is during index hospitalization or at discharge. Patients with a prescription for SGLT2i vs. those without prescription had lower rates of heart failure readmission or cardiovascular death at 1 year (22.4% vs. 25.3%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.90 [95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.93]), and also at 30 days (7.0% vs. 7.7%%; 0.74 [0.69-0.79]).
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, initiating SGLT2i treatment after an episode of acute heart failure was significantly associated with a reduced combined risk of heart failure readmission and cardiovascular mortality in a nationwide cohort reflecting routine clinical practice.