Am J Cardiol. 2023 Jul 24;203:128-135. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2023.07.018. Online ahead of print.
The incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) has increased globally in the past decades, including in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in trends across states, gender, and age groups within the United States. Using the Global Burden of Disease database, we analyzed the incidence and mortality trends of IE in the United States between 1990 and 2019 using Joinpoint regression analyses, and compared between states, gender, and age groups. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of IE in the United States increased from 10.2/100,000 population in 1990 to 14.4 in 2019. The increase in ASIR was greater among men than women (45.8% vs 34.1%). The incidence increase was driven by 55+ year-olds (112.7% increase), with rapid increases in the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a plateau around the mid-2000s. In contrast, the incidence among 5-to-19-year-olds decreased by -36.6% over the 30-year period. The incidence increased among all age groups in the last 5 years of observation (2015 to 2019), with the largest increase in 5-to-19-year-olds (3.3% yearly). The 30-year increase in ASIR was greatest in Utah (66.2%) and smallest in California (30.2%). The overall age-standardized mortality attributable to IE increased in the United States by 126% between 1990 and 2019 versus 19.6% globally. In conclusion, although the overall incidence and mortality of IE increased over the past 30 years in the United States, there are significant differences between regions, gender, and age groups. These findings indicate unevenly distributed disease burden of IE across the nation.