Prognosis of critically ill patients with extreme acidosis: A retrospective study

Link to article at PubMed

J Crit Care. 2023 Jul 20;78:154381. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2023.154381. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the impact of different subtypes of extreme acidosis on the mortality of critically ill patients.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included critically ill patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a pH level <7. Clinical data and blood gas analyses were collected from electronic medical records. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The use of vasopressors, mechanical ventilation (MV), and renal replacement therapy (RRT), the duration of MV and RRT, and the length of ICU and hospital stay were secondary outcomes. The simplified Stewart approach to acid-base disorders was used to analyze the causes of acidosis.

RESULTS: A total of 231 patients with 371 arterial blood gas analyses with pH < 7 were admitted from January 2012 to December 2021 and 222 were included in the study. Out of the 222 patients analyzed, respiratory acidosis was the primary disorder in 11.3% of patients (n = 25), metabolic acidosis in 33.8% (n = 75), and mixed acidosis in 55% (n = 122). Overall mortality was 42.8% (n = 95). No significant difference was observed in mortality among patients with respiratory, metabolic, or mixed acidosis (28%, 42.7%, and 45.9%, respectively; p = 0.26). The primary disorder affected the use of vasopressors and MV, the duration of MV, and the length of ICU and hospital stay. Patients with extreme acidosis due to unmeasured anions with lactate levels of 4 mmol/L or higher had higher mortality compared with patients with lactate levels <4 mmol/L (55.6% and 27.7%, respectively; p = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: Among critically ill patients with extreme acidosis, the primary disorder is not associated with mortality, but it is associated with the use of vasopressors and MV, the duration of MV, and the length of ICU and hospital stay. Additionally, hyperlactatemia is a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with extreme acidosis.

PMID:37480659 | DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2023.154381

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