Clin Cardiol. 2023 Jul 18. doi: 10.1002/clc.24080. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 1/3 of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are discharged with persistent congestion. Worsening renal function (WRF) occurs in approximately 50% of patients hospitalized for ADHF and the combination of WRF and persistent congestion are associated with higher risk of mortality and HF readmissions.
METHODS: We designed a multicenter, prospective registry to describe current treatments and outcomes for patients hospitalized with ADHF complicated by WRF (defined as a creatinine increase ≥0.3 mg/dL) and persistent congestion at 96 h. Study participants were followed during the hospitalization and through 90-day post-discharge. Hospitalization costs were analyzed in an economic substudy.
RESULTS: We enrolled 237 patients hospitalized with ADHF, who also had WRF and persistent congestion. Among these, the average age was 66 ± 13 years and 61% had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40%. Mean baseline creatinine was 1.7 ± 0.7 mg/dL. Patients with persistent congestion had a high burden of clinical events during the index hospitalization (7.6% intensive care unit transfer, 2.1% intubation, 1.7% left ventricular assist device implantation, and 0.8% dialysis). At 90-day follow-up, 33% of patients were readmitted for ADHF or died. Outcomes and costs were similar between patients with reduced and preserved LVEF.
CONCLUSIONS: Many patients admitted with ADHF have WRF and persistent congestion despite diuresis and are at high risk for adverse events during hospitalization and early follow-up. Novel treatment strategies are urgently needed for this high-risk population.