Am J Gastroenterol. 2023 Aug 17. doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000002412. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: There is minimal evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of individual antibiotics in the treatment of pouchitis. We sought to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of ciprofloxacin monotherapy, metronidazole monotherapy, and combination therapy (ciprofloxacin and metronidazole) in the treatment of an initial episode of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis (UC).
METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in TriNetX, a global federated research network of electronic health records. Primary outcomes were failure of initial antibiotic therapy and the development of recurrent pouchitis in the first 12 months after an initial episode of pouchitis. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed for age, sex, race, primary sclerosing cholangitis, nicotine dependence, obesity, and previous exposure to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors between the cohorts.
RESULTS: Among 271 patients who developed pouchitis (mean age at ileal pouch-anal anastomosis 35.8 years, male sex 57%) and were treated with ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or combination therapy, 190 (70%) developed recurrent pouchitis. After propensity score matching, there was no significant difference in the odds of early relapse or nonresponse with ciprofloxacin compared with metronidazole monotherapy (adjusted odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.34) or when either monotherapy was compared with combination therapy. There was also no significant difference in odds of recurrent pouchitis when comparing patients treated with ciprofloxacin with metronidazole monotherapy (adjusted odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.40-1.84) or either monotherapy with combination therapy.
DISCUSSION: In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrated no significant difference in the real-world effectiveness of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or combination therapy for the initial episode of pouchitis.