Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2023 May 12;85(6):2932-2939. doi: 10.1097/MS9.0000000000000836. eCollection 2023 Jun.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common ICU acquired pneumonia among patients who are invasively intubated for mechanical ventilation. Patients with VAP suffer an increased mortality risk, financial burden, and length of stay in the hospital. The authors aimed to review the literature to describe the incidence, mortality, and microbiological evidence of VAP. We selected 13 peer-reviewed articles published from 1 January 2010 to 15 September 2022 from electronic databases for studies among adult or pediatric patients diagnosed with VAP expressed per thousand days admitted in the ICU. The VAP rates ranged from 7 to 43 per thousand days, varying among different countries of the world. A significant rate of mortality was observed in 13 studies ranging from 6.3 to 66.9%. Gram-negative organisms like Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-positive organisms like Staphylococcus aureus were frequently found. Our findings suggest an alarming situation of VAP among patients admitted to the intensive care units with increasing incidence and mortality. The review also found that VAP is more common in males and that there is a significant variation in the incidence and mortality rates of VAP among different countries. The findings of this review can inform the development of infection control and prevention strategies to reduce the burden of VAP. Thus, there is a crucial need for control and preventive measures like interventional studies and educational programs on staff training, hand-hygiene, and the appropriate use of ventilator bundle approach to curb this preventable threat that is increasing at an alarming rate.