J Vasc Access. 2023 Jun 21:11297298231173160. doi: 10.1177/11297298231173160. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Nurse-led peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) placement teams are common in western hospitals, but they are still in their infancy in Japan. Although implementing a dedicated program may improve ongoing vascular-access management, the direct hospital-level effects of launching a nurse-led PICC team on specific outcomes have not been formally investigated.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of introducing a nurse practitioner (NP)-led PICC-placement program on subsequent utilization of centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs) and to contrast the quality of PICC placements conducted by physicians and NPs.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent central venous access devices (CVADs) between 2014 and 2020 at a university hospital in Japan were evaluated retrospectively using an interrupted time-series analysis on the trend for monthly CVAD utilization and logistic regression and propensity score-based analyses for PICC-related complications.
RESULTS: Among 6007 CVAD placements, 2230 PICCs were inserted into 1658 patients (725 by physicians and 1505 by NPs). The monthly number of CICC utilization fell from 58 in April 2014 to 38 in March 2020, while PICC placements by the NP PICC team increased from 0 to 104. The implementation of the NP PICC program reduced the immediate rate (by 35.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.1-46.9; p < 0.001) and post-intervention trend (by 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p < 0.001) of monthly CICC utilization. Overall immediate complication rates were lower in the NP group than the physician group (1.5% vs 5.1%; adjusted odds ratio = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.17-0.59; p < 0.001). The cumulative incidences of central line-associated bloodstream infections were comparable between the NP and physician groups (5.9% vs 7.2%; adjusted hazard ratio = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.53-1.75; p = .90).
CONCLUSIONS: This NP-led PICC program reduced CICC utilization without affecting the quality of PICC placement or complication rate.