Low Utilization of Lead Extraction Among Patients With Infective Endocarditis and Implanted Cardiac Electronic Devices

Link to article at PubMed

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2023 May 2;81(17):1714-1725. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.02.042.


BACKGROUND: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED)-associated infections are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs. Guidelines have cited endocarditis as a Class I indication for transvenous lead removal/extraction (TLE) among patients with CIEDs.

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to study utilization of TLE among hospital admissions with infective endocarditis using a nationally representative database.

METHODS: Using the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), 25,303 admissions for patients with CIEDs and endocarditis between 2016 and 2019 were evaluated on the basis of International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision, Clinical-Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes.

RESULTS: Among admissions for patients with CIEDs and endocarditis, 11.5% were managed with TLE. The proportion undergoing TLE increased significantly from 2016 to 2019 (7.6% vs 14.9%; P trend < 0.001). Procedural complications were identified in 2.7%. Index mortality was significantly lower among patients managed with TLE (6.0% vs 9.5%; P < 0.001). Presence of Staphylococcus aureus infection, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and large hospital size were independently associated with TLE management. TLE management was less likely with older age, female sex, dementia, and kidney disease. After adjustment for comorbidities, TLE was independently associated with significantly lower odds of mortality (adjusted OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.37-0.60 by multivariable logistic regression, and adjusted OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40-0.66 by propensity score matching).

CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of lead extraction among patients with CIEDs and endocarditis is low, even in the presence of low rates of procedural complications. Lead extraction management is associated with significantly lower mortality, and its use has trended upward between 2016 and 2019. Barriers to TLE for patients with CIEDs and endocarditis require investigation.

PMID:37100488 | DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2023.02.042

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