Maturitas. 2023 Apr 20;172:52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2023.04.009. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intensive treatment to lower blood pressure (BP) on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among patients aged over 60 years.
STUDY DESIGN: We extracted individual-level data of participants aged over 60 years from the SPRINT study and ACCORD study first, and then conducted a meta-analysis of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and other adverse events (hypotension and syncope) and renal outcomes across the SPRINT, STEP, ACCORD BP trials, which included 18,806 participants over 60 years of age. Participants were randomized to receive standard BP treatment or intensive BP treatment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) were used to calculate summary statistics.
RESULTS: In this meta-analysis, intensive treatment did not decrease either the all-cause mortality rate (HR: 0.98; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-1.26; p = 0.87) or the cardiovascular mortality rate (HR: 0.77; 95 % CI: 0.54-1.08; p = 0.13). The incidence of MACEs (HR: 0.83; 95 % CI: 0.74-0.94; p = 0.003) and stroke (HR: 0.70; 95 % CI: 0.56-0.88; p = 0.002) was reduced, however. Intensive treatment had no effect on acute coronary syndrome (HR: 0.87; 95 % CI: 0.69-1.10; p = 0.24) or heart failure (HR: 0.70; 95 % CI: 0.40-1.22; p = 0.21). Intensive treatment increased the risk of hypotension (HR: 1.46; 95 % CI: 1.12-1.91; p = 0.006) and syncope (HR: 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.93; p = 0.02). Intensive treatment did not increase the risk of impaired kidney function among patients with chronic kidney disease (HR: 0.98; 95 % CI: 0.41-2.34; p = 0.96) or without chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.77; 95 % CI: 0.48-6.56; p = 0.40) at baseline.
CONCLUSIONS: Intensive BP goals reduced the incidence of MACEs and increased the risk of other adverse events without significant changes in mortality or renal outcome.