Diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early biomarker for detection of renal failure in hypertensives: a case-control study in a regional hospital in Ghana

Link to article at PubMed

BMC Nephrol. 2023 Apr 26;24(1):114. doi: 10.1186/s12882-023-03120-6.


BACKGROUND: Renal failure is one of the most serious vascular effects of hypertension. For better therapy and prevention of complications, early kidney disease identification in these patients is absolutely essential. However, current studies have proposed plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (pNGAL) to be a better biomarker comparative to serum creatinine (SCr). This study assessed the diagnostic utility of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) as a biomarker for early nephropathy diagnosis in hypertensive individuals.

METHODS: This hospital-based case-control study comprised 140 hypertensives and 70 healthy participants. A well-structured questionnaire and patient case notes were used to document relevant demographic and clinical information. 5 ml of venous blood sample was taken to measure fasting blood sugar levels, creatinine, and plasma NGAL levels. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS release 20.0, copyrite©SPSS Inc.) and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: In this study the plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Hypertensive cases also had significantly higher waist-circumference compared to the control group. The median fasting blood sugar level was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. This study established the use of Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), and Cockcroft and Gault formula (CG) as the most accurate predictive equations for assessing renal dysfunction. The threshold for NGAL above which renal impairment can be assessed was found to be 109.4 ng/ml (sen-91%, spec. - 68%), 120 ng/ml (sen- 100%, spec- 72%) and 118.6 ng/ml (sen- 83%, spec- 72%) for MDRD, CKD-EPI and CG equations respectively. The prevalence of CKD was 16.4%, 13.6% and 20.7% respectively using the MDRD, CKD-EPI and CG.

CONCLUSION: From this study, pNGAL is a better indicator of kidney impairment in the early stages of CKD as compared with sCr in general hypertensive population.

PMID:37101162 | PMC:PMC10134524 | DOI:10.1186/s12882-023-03120-6

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