Risk factors associated with inappropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment in bloodstream infections. A cohort study

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Front Pharmacol. 2023 Mar 24;14:1132530. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2023.1132530. eCollection 2023.


Introduction: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are a major cause of mortality all over the world. Inappropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment (i-EAT) impact on mortality has been largely reported. However, information on related factors for the election of i-EAT in the treatment of BSI in adults is lacking. The aim of the study was the identification of risk-factors associated with the use of i-EAT in BSI. Methods: A retrospective, observational cohort study, from a prospective database was conducted in a 400-bed acute-care teaching hospital including all BSI episodes in adult patients between January and December 2018. The main outcome variable was EAT appropriation. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed. Results: 599 BSI episodes were included, 146 (24%) received i-EAT. Male gender, nosocomial and healthcare-associated acquisition of infection, a high Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score and the isolation of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms were more frequent in the i-EAT group. Adequation to local guidelines' recommendations on EAT resulted in 91% of appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment (a-EAT). Patients receiving i-EAT presented higher mortality rates at day 14 and 30 when compared to patients with a-EAT (14% vs. 6%, p = 0.002 and 22% vs. 9%, p < 0.001 respectively). In the multivariate analysis, a CCI score ≥3 (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.16-3.12) p = 0.01) and the isolation of a multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganism (OR 3.79 (95% CI 2.28-6.30), p < 0.001) were found as independent risk factors for i-EAT. In contrast, female gender (OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.35-0.98), p = 0.04), a correct identification of clinical syndrome prior to antibiotics administration (OR 0.26 (95% CI 0.16-0.44), p < 0.001) and adherence to local guidelines (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.13-0.38), p < 0.001) were identified as protective factors against i-EAT. Conclusion: One quarter of BSI episodes received i-EAT. Some of the i-EAT related factors were unmodifiable (male gender, CCI score ≥3 and isolation of a MDR microorganism) but others (incorrect identification of clinical syndrome before starting EAT or the use of local guidelines for EAT) could be addressed to optimize the use of antimicrobials.

PMID:37063300 | PMC:PMC10091116 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2023.1132530

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