Surgery. 2023 Apr 10:S0039-6060(23)00125-3. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2023.03.003. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: To assess the use of surgical intervention for lower gastrointestinal bleeding and evaluate its associated factors.
METHODS: The 2016 to 2019 National Inpatient Sample was queried to identify non-elective adult (≥18 years) hospitalizations for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes were used to ascertain patient characteristics, including signs of hemodynamic instability, potential lower gastrointestinal bleed source, and transfusion of blood products, as well as endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical intervention. Multivariable regression analyses were used to elucidate factors associated with operative management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and evaluate its associated mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization costs.
RESULTS: Of an estimated 364,495 patients, 1.7% underwent an operation for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Compared to those managed conservatively, patients who underwent surgical intervention more commonly had diverticular-related bleeding, signs of hypovolemia, and less frequently underwent endoscopic intervention. After the adjustment of patient and hospital characteristics, ischemic colitis (adjusted odds ratio 7.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8-30.9, ref: hemorrhoids), hemodynamic instability (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-2.0), and angiographic embolization (adjusted odds ratio 4.9, 95% confidence interval 3.9-6.0, ref: no endoscopic/radiologic intervention) were associated with greater odds of surgical intervention. Additionally, surgical intervention portended greater odds of in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 6.2, 95% confidence interval 4.5-8.5), a longer length of stay (8.5 days, 95% confidence interval 8.0-9.0), and greater hospitalization cost ($29.1K, 95% confidence interval 26.7K-31.5K).
CONCLUSION: Operative management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding is rare and associated with significant morbidity and mortality compared to those managed conservatively. However, when surgical intervention is indicated, preoperative patient characteristics should be used to identify those at greater risk of an operation to facilitate early surgical consultation and inform expectations during the perioperative period.
PMID:37045623 | DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2023.03.003