Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: Evidence from Observational Studies

Link to article at PubMed

J Clin Med. 2023 Mar 15;12(6):2262. doi: 10.3390/jcm12062262.


Previous epidemiological studies have raised the concern that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with an increased risk of kidney diseases. To date, no comprehensive meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the association between PPIs and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the association between PPIs and CKD. The primary search was conducted in the most popular databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. All observational studies evaluated the risk of CKD among PPI users, and non-users were considered for inclusion. Two reviewers conducted data extraction and assessed the risk of bias. Random-effect models were used to calculate pooled effect sizes. A total of 6,829,905 participants from 10 observational studies were included. Compared with non-PPI use, PPI use was significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD (RR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.02-2.87, p = 0.03). This updated meta-analysis showed that PPI was significantly associated with an increased risk of CKD. Association was observed in the same among moderate-quality studies. Until further randomized control trials (RCTs) and biological studies confirm these results, PPI therapy should not stop patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, caution should be used when prescribing to patients with high-risk kidney disease.

PMID:36983271 | DOI:10.3390/jcm12062262

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