Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in acute heart failure: A narrative review

Link to article at PubMed

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2023 Mar 27:zxad061. doi: 10.1093/ajhp/zxad061. Online ahead of print.


DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles, AJHP is posting manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time.

PURPOSE: This review describes the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiovascular (CV) clinical outcomes when therapy is initiated during acute heart failure (HF).

SUMMARY: SGLT2 inhibitors have become a cornerstone of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and HF. Because of their ability to promote natriuresis and diuresis as well as other potentially beneficial CV effects, use of SGLT2 inhibitors has been investigated when therapy is initiated during hospitalization for acute HF. We identified 5 placebo-controlled RCTs that reported CV clinical outcomes incorporating one or more components of all-cause mortality, CV mortality, CV hospitalization, HF worsening, and hospitalization for HF in patients treated with empagliflozin (n = 3 trials), dapagliflozin (n = 1 trial), and sotagliflozin (n = 1 trial). Nearly all CV outcomes in these trials showed benefit with SGLT2 inhibitor use during acute HF. Incidence of hypotension, hypokalemia, and acute renal failure was generally similar to that with placebo. These findings are limited by heterogeneous outcome definitions, variation in time to SGLT2 inhibitor initiation, and small sample sizes.

CONCLUSION: SGLT2 inhibitors may have a role in inpatient management of acute HF, provided there is close monitoring for fluctuations in hemodynamic, fluid, and electrolyte status. Initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors at the time of acute HF may promote optimized GDMT, continued medication adherence, and reduced risk of CV outcomes.

PMID:36971375 | DOI:10.1093/ajhp/zxad061

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *