Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2023;25(4):71-92. doi: 10.1007/s11940-023-00747-6. Epub 2023 Mar 4.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The risks of cerebrovascular manifestations due to SARS-CoV-2 infection are significantly increased within the first 6 months of the infection. Our work aims to give an update on current clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular manifestations during acute and long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.
RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of acute ischemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke during acute SARS-CoV-2 patients is estimated at 0.9 to 4.6% and 0.5-0.9%, respectively, and were associated with increased mortality. The majority presented with hemiparesis, dysarthria, sensory deficits, and a NIHSS score within 5-15. In addition, beyond the first 30 days of infection people with COVID-19 exhibited increased risk of stroke. During acute phase, age, hypertension, diabetes, and medical history of vascular disease were increased in patients with COVID-19 with new onset of cerebrovascular manifestations, while during long-COVID-19, the risk of cerebrovascular manifestations were found increased regardless of these factors. The management of patients with large-vessel ischemic stroke fulfilling the intravenous thrombolysis criteria are successfully treated according to the guidelines, while hyperosmolar therapy is typically administered in 4- to 6-h intervals. In addition, prophylaxis of anticoagulation therapy is associated with a better prognosis and low mortality during acute and post hospital discharge of patients with COVID-19.
SUMMARY: In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on acute and post-acute COVID-19 cerebrovascular sequelae, symptomatology, and its pathophysiology mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss therapeutic strategies for these patients during acute and long-term care and point populations at risk. Our findings suggest that older patients with risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and medical history of vascular disease are more likely to develop cerebrovascular complications.