Cureus. 2023 Feb 13;15(2):e34942. doi: 10.7759/cureus.34942. eCollection 2023 Feb.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) were initially developed for treating patients with type 2 DM. The four major drugs developed are canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and ertugliflozin. Apart from treating DM, these drugs have shown to have a beneficial effect on lowering cardiovascular death and lowering hospital admission, and have beneficial renal outcomes. Recently, several large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were done to assess the benefit of these drugs, mainly in patients with CVD, irrespective of their diabetic status. This systematic review examined seven large-scale randomized controlled trials that focused mainly on CVD in patients with type 2 DM and if it showed any improvement. We properly screened the RCTs if they demonstrated cardiovascular outcomes after taking the SGLT2i or a placebo drug. The seven studies combined had a total sample population of 55,433, and the mean follow-up time was about four years. The participants included in this study had various basal metabolic indices, ages, glomerular filtration rates, and diabetic status characteristics. Although these patients were quite different, after the administration of SGLT2i, the studies showed a beneficial effect in reducing CVD mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 DM.