Med J Aust. 2023 Feb 19. doi: 10.5694/mja2.51849. Online ahead of print.
Young-onset dementia comprises a heterogeneous range of dementias, with onset at less than 65 years of age. These include primary dementias such as Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal and vascular dementias; genetic/familial dementias; metabolic disorders; and secondary dementias such as those that result from alcohol use disorder, traumatic brain injury, and infections. The presentation of young-onset dementia is varied and may include cognitive, psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Diagnostic delay is common, with a frequent diagnostic conundrum being, "Is this young-onset dementia or is this psychiatric?". For assessment and accurate diagnosis, a thorough screen is recommended, such as collateral history and investigations such as neuroimaging, lumbar puncture, neuropsychology, and genetic testing. The management of young-onset dementia needs to be age-appropriate and multidisciplinary, with timely access to services and consideration of the family (including children).