Ann Pharmacother. 2023 Feb 20:10600280231154246. doi: 10.1177/10600280231154246. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Essential to the coagulation pathway, vitamin K (phytonadione) is used to correct clotting factor deficiencies and for reversal of warfarin-induced bleeding. In practice, high-dose intravenous (IV) vitamin K is often used, despite limited evidence supporting repeated dosing.
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterize differences in responders and nonresponders to high-dose vitamin K to guide dosing strategies.
METHODS: This was a case-control study of hospitalized adults who received vitamin K 10 mg IV daily for 3 days. Cases were represented by patients who responded to the first dose of IV vitamin K and controls were nonresponders. The primary outcome was change in international normalized ratio (INR) over time with subsequent vitamin K doses. Secondary outcomes included factors associated with response to vitamin K and incidence of safety events. The Cleveland Clinic Institutional Review Board approved this study.
RESULTS: There were 497 patients included, and 182 were responders. Most patients had underlying cirrhosis (91.5%). In responders, the INR decreased from 1.89 at baseline (95% CI = [1.74-2.04]) to 1.40 on day 3 (95% CI = [1.30-1.50]). In nonresponders, the INR decreased from 1.97 (95% CI = [1.83-2.13]) to 1.85 ([1.72-1.99]). Factors associated with response included lower body weight, absence of cirrhosis, and lower bilirubin. There was a low incidence of safety events observed.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of mainly patients with cirrhosis, the overall adjusted decrease in INR over 3 days was 0.3, which may have minimal clinical impact. Additional studies are needed to identify populations who may benefit from repeated daily doses of high-dose IV vitamin K.
PMID:36803019 | DOI:10.1177/10600280231154246