Diagnosis and Treatment of AL Amyloidosis

Link to article at PubMed

Drugs. 2023 Feb;83(3):203-216. doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01830-z. Epub 2023 Jan 18.


Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by an usually small B cell clone that produces a toxic light chain forming amyloid deposits in tissue. The heart and kidney are the major organs affected, but all others, with the exception of the CNS, can be involved. The disease is rapidly progressive, and it is still diagnosed late. Screening programs in patients followed by hematologists for plasma cell dyscrasias should be considered. The diagnosis requires demonstration in a tissue biopsy of amyloid deposits formed by immunoglobulin light chains. The workup of patients with AL amyloidosis requires adequate technology and expertise, and patients should be referred to specialized centers whenever possible. Stagings are based on cardiac and renal biomarkers and guides the choice of treatment. The combination of daratumumab, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (dara-CyBorD) is the current standard of care. Autologous stem cell transplant is performed in eligible patients, especially those who do not attain a satisfactory response to dara-CyBorD. Passive immunotherapy targeting the amyloid deposits combined with chemo-/immune-therapy targeting the amyloid clone is currently being tested in controlled clinical trials. Response to therapy is assessed based on validated criteria. Profound hematologic response is the early goal of treatment and should be accompanied over time by deepening organ response. Many relapsed/refractory patients are also treated with daratumumab combination, but novel regimens will be needed to rescue daratumumab-exposed subjects. Immunomodulatory drugs are the current cornerstone of rescue therapy, while immunotherapy targeting B-cell maturation antigen and inhibitors of Bcl-2 are promising alternatives.

PMID:36652193 | DOI:10.1007/s40265-022-01830-z

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