2023 May 30. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as significant bacteriuria in the setting of symptoms of cystitis or pyelonephritis caused by pathogenic inflammation of the upper or lower urinary tract. Acute simple cystitis would be a urinary tract infection confined to the bladder in an otherwise healthy, premenopausal, non-pregnant female. Women are more commonly afflicted with UTIs than men due primarily to the proximity of the urethral meatus to the rectum as well as a shorter urethral length.
Urinary tract infections are four times more likely in females than males. Many women know the symptoms of cystitis, which include urinary frequency (frequent trips to the bathroom less than 2 hours apart), urgency, and a stinging or burning sensation (dysuria) when passing urine. There may also be hematuria or suprapubic pain. A diagnosis of uncomplicated cystitis may be made by medical history, findings on physical examination, urinalysis (UA) results, and urine cultures. While usually treated on an outpatient basis, the severity of the disease can range widely and can result in hospital admission. This review is an overview of simple, acute cystitis.