Hypercalcemia: A Review

Link to article at PubMed

JAMA. 2022 Oct 25;328(16):1624-1636. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.18331.


IMPORTANCE: Hypercalcemia affects approximately 1% of the worldwide population. Mild hypercalcemia, defined as total calcium of less than 12 mg/dL (<3 mmol/L) or ionized calcium of 5.6 to 8.0 mg/dL (1.4-2 mmol/L), is usually asymptomatic but may be associated with constitutional symptoms such as fatigue and constipation in approximately 20% of people. Hypercalcemia that is severe, defined as total calcium of 14 mg/dL or greater (>3.5 mmol/L) or ionized calcium of 10 mg/dL or greater (≥2.5 mmol/L) or that develops rapidly over days to weeks, can cause nausea, vomiting, dehydration, confusion, somnolence, and coma.

OBSERVATIONS: Approximately 90% of people with hypercalcemia have primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) or malignancy. Additional causes of hypercalcemia include granulomatous disease such as sarcoidosis, endocrinopathies such as thyroid disease, immobilization, genetic disorders, and medications such as thiazide diuretics and supplements such as calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin A. Hypercalcemia has been associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 protein inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, denosumab discontinuation, SARS-CoV-2, ketogenic diets, and extreme exercise, but these account for less than 1% of causes. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), the most important initial test to evaluate hypercalcemia, distinguishes PTH-dependent from PTH-independent causes. In a patient with hypercalcemia, an elevated or normal PTH concentration is consistent with PHPT, while a suppressed PTH level (<20 pg/mL depending on assay) indicates another cause. Mild hypercalcemia usually does not need acute intervention. If due to PHPT, parathyroidectomy may be considered depending on age, serum calcium level, and kidney or skeletal involvement. In patients older than 50 years with serum calcium levels less than 1 mg above the upper normal limit and no evidence of skeletal or kidney disease, observation may be appropriate. Initial therapy of symptomatic or severe hypercalcemia consists of hydration and intravenous bisphosphonates, such as zoledronic acid or pamidronate. In patients with kidney failure, denosumab and dialysis may be indicated. Glucocorticoids may be used as primary treatment when hypercalcemia is due to excessive intestinal calcium absorption (vitamin D intoxication, granulomatous disorders, some lymphomas). Treatment reduces serum calcium and improves symptoms, at least transiently. The underlying cause of hypercalcemia should be identified and treated. The prognosis for asymptomatic PHPT is excellent with either medical or surgical management. Hypercalcemia of malignancy is associated with poor survival.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Mild hypercalcemia is typically asymptomatic, while severe hypercalcemia is associated with nausea, vomiting, dehydration, confusion, somnolence, and coma. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism is managed with parathyroidectomy or observation with monitoring, while severe hypercalcemia is typically treated with hydration and intravenous bisphosphonates.

PMID:36282253 | DOI:10.1001/jama.2022.18331

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