Ann Pharmacother. 2022 Oct 18:10600280221130456. doi: 10.1177/10600280221130456. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to discuss the controversies surrounding the use and dosing of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in obese patients recognizing the limitations of the existing evidence base that preclude strong recommendations.
DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE was performed (2020 to end August 2022) subsequent to recent guidelines using the following search terms: direct acting anticoagulants, obesity, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran, dabigatran etexilate, and clinical practice guidelines.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA ABSTRACTION: English-language studies and those conducted in adults were selected.
DATA SYNTHESIS: The available randomized studies evaluating DOACs had relatively small numbers of patients with more extreme forms of obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m2) and none of the larger studies had a specific focus on dosing DOACs in obese patients. Recent guidelines by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) have specific recommendations for dosing DOACs in obesity. There are pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and observational studies published before and after the ISTH guidelines with a focus on DOAC dosing in obese patients that generally support the recommendations in the guidelines, but most involved small numbers of patients usually with BMIs <45 kg/m2.
RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review discusses DOAC dosing in obesity with important considerations for clinicians related to DOAC choice and dosing.
CONCLUSIONS: Dosing alterations of DOACs do not appear to be necessary when used for either prophylaxis or treatment in patients with BMIs up to approximately 45 to 50 kg/m2, but research is needed for BMIs >50 kg/m2.