The Risk of Major Bleeding With Apixaban Administration in Patients With Acute Kidney Injury

Link to article at PubMed

Ann Pharmacother. 2022 Oct 14:10600280221129831. doi: 10.1177/10600280221129831. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Apixaban is eliminated by the kidneys and in acute kidney injury (AKI) there is potential for an increase in apixaban exposure and bleeding events. In one instance, data have shown higher than normal bleed risk in patients with AKI, unless calibrated anti-factor Xa monitoring is used, which is not widely available.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bleeding with apixaban administration to hospitalized patients with an AKI in an unmonitored real-world scenario.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to a large urban academic teaching hospital from April 2015 to March 2022, who received apixaban for venous thromboembolism or nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The primary outcome evaluated major bleeding when apixaban was administered to patients with or without an AKI.

RESULTS: A total of 232 patients were evaluated (116 per group). Most patients (79.7%) were on apixaban for NVAF, 32.7% had chronic kidney disease, 58.2% were on a medication increasing bleed risk, and HAS-BLED score was a median of 2 in both groups. No differences were noted between groups for bleeding (AKI group 7.8% vs non-AKI 3.4%; P = 0.15), and on regression analysis, coadministration of a P2Y12 inhibitor was predictive of major bleeding (odds ratio = 5.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-23.6).

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Although no differences between groups were noted, apixaban use in the AKI group resulted in a higher than normally reported incidence of apixaban-associated major bleeding, and concomitant antiplatelet use increased bleed risk as well. Cautious use of apixaban and further investigation with larger studies are warranted in this area.

PMID:36239322 | DOI:10.1177/10600280221129831

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