J Glob Health. 2022 Feb 19;12:05005. doi: 10.7189/jogh.12.05005. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on pneumonia have been well reported. However, the relationship between the use of PPIs and the adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently inconclusive. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between the use of PPIs and the in-hospital mortality among patients who were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2.
METHODS: Data was derived from 2 hospitals which both were the first batch of SARS-CoV-2 specialist hospitals with four types of sensitivity analyses. This cohort included 4634 patients older than 18 years who were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Endpoints were death in hospital (primary) and the recovery of COVID-19 (secondary: the time of COVID-19 nucleic acid testing turning negative).
RESULTS: In the entire cohort, there were 3588 non-users, 399 ≤ 0.5 defined daily dose (DDD) PPIs users, 483 1 DDD users, and 164 ≥ 1.5 DDD users. The multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.83-7.23, P = 0.0002) and four types of sensitivity analyses showed higher mortality in patients using PPIs during hospitalization, while the relationship between different PPIs dosages and the hospital mortality remained insignificant. Usage of the PPIs significantly prolongs the time of COVID-19 nucleic acid testing turning negative.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of PPIs may increase the risk of in-hospital death of patients who were laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, which means that physicians may need to re-evaluate the benefit-risk assessment of the use of PPIs during the COVID-19 pandemic.