Ann Thorac Med. 2022 Jan-Mar;17(1):59-65. doi: 10.4103/atm.atm_178_21. Epub 2022 Jan 14.
PURPOSE: We conducted this study to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes exclusively in high-risk coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) tertiary care patients with multiple comorbidities, as very few have reported outcomes in this specific cohort.
METHODS: All patients, with two or more risk factors for COVID-19 and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of >2, who were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) between March and December 2020 were included. Their characteristics, ICU course, and outcomes as well as differences between nonsurvivors and survivors were evaluated. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day mortality.
RESULTS: Out of 1152 COVID-19 patients, 101 met the inclusion criteria. The patients had an average of 4 or more comorbidities with a very high CCI of 5. The 28-day all-cause mortality was 23% and inhospital mortality was 32%. Among all risk factors, only age > 70 years, male gender, and chronic kidney disease were significant determinants of mortality (P < 0.03). Admission PaO2/FiO2 ratio and elevated inflammatory markers were same among survivors and nonsurvivors (P > 0.66). The mean time from presentation to ICU admission (59 vs. 38 h), APACHE II score (20.5 vs. 17), ICU length of stay (25 vs. 12 days), and hospital length of stay (28 vs. 20 days) were all higher in nonsurvivors as compared to survivors, respectively (P < 0.03). Fifty-four percent of the patients were intubated and had higher 28-day (40%) and inhospital (55%) mortality.
CONCLUSION: Tertiary care patients with multiple comorbidities have higher mortality than what is reported for mixed populations. Further studies are needed to determine realistic mortality benchmarks for these patients.