Prospective evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine responses across a broad spectrum of immunocompromising conditions: the COVICS study

Link to article at PubMed

Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Feb 18:ciac103. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac103. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after COVID-19 vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency.

METHODS: Prospective study of fully-vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant (SOT), hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, HIV infection) versus non-immunocompromised healthcare-workers (HCW). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for IgG to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity.

RESULTS: 1271 participants enrolled: 1,099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared to HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (p<0.01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus mRNA-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines, after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r=0.89, p<0.0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW.

CONCLUSION: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCW. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

PMID:35179197 | DOI:10.1093/cid/ciac103

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