Effect of malnutrition on outcomes in patients with heart failure: A large retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study

Link to article at PubMed

Nutr Clin Pract. 2022 Jan 7. doi: 10.1002/ncp.10815. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent, whereas malnutrition is generally associated with poorer hospital outcomes, and it is not uncommon in patients with HF. Prior studies of the effect of malnutrition on HF outcomes are limited in size and quality. This study aims to elucidate the association between malnutrition and hospital length of stay (LOS), mortality, and discharge destination in patients with HF.

METHODS: This is a retrospective review of medical records for inpatients admitted with a primary diagnosis of HF in 2018. Patients with HF and severe protein-calorie malnutrition were compared with those without malnutrition. A two-sided t-test was conducted between patients who have HF with and without malnutrition on hospital outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression was developed to identify potential predictors of malnutrition. A propensity score was calculated for each patient and matched cases (malnutrition with nonmalnutrition) to balance covariates and reduce bias.

RESULTS: For N = 7079, the median age was 75 years, with 15.79% having severe malnutrition. Overall mortality was 5.57% (394 deceased) . There were significant associations between malnutrition and both mortality (relative risk, 2.22; P < 0.001) and LOS (10 vs 5 days, P < 0.001) in patients with HF. Significantly fewer patients with malnutrition were discharged home (odds ratio, 0.41; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Patients with HF and malnutrition have higher risk for mortality, increased LOS in the hospital, and decreased chance of being discharged home. Continued study of this population is required to better predict which patients with malnutrition will respond to nutrition interventions.

PMID:34994478 | DOI:10.1002/ncp.10815

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