2022 Jan 4. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–.
Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally high serum pH (arterial pH greater than 7.45), which is termed alkalemia and forms one end of the spectrum of acid-base disorders. There is generally a loss of hydrogen ions (H) or an excess of bicarbonate ions (OH), and multiple factors can cause either of these. In general, alkalosis is less life-threatening than acidosis, but severe electrolyte derangements can accompany alkalosis due to transcellular shifts, potentially resulting in rare but severe clinical disorders. Alkalosis can be either respiratory or metabolic in origin, but metabolic alkalosis is far more common than respiratory causes.