Effectiveness of rosuvastatin plus colchicine, emtricitabine/tenofovir and combinations thereof in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a pragmatic, open-label randomized trial

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EClinicalMedicine. 2022 Jan;43:101242. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101242. Epub 2021 Dec 20.


BACKGROUND: The use of rosuvastatin plus colchicine and emtricitabine/tenofovir in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of rosuvastatin plus colchicine, emtricitabine/tenofovir, and their combined use in these patients.

METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicentre, parallel, pragmatic study conducted in six referral hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia. The study enrolled hospitalized patients over 18 years of age with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 complicated with pneumonia, not on chronic treatment with the study medications, and with no contraindications for their use. Patients were assigned 1:1:1:1. 1) emtricitabine with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF, 200/300 mg given orally for 10 days); 2) colchicine plus rosuvastatin (COLCH+ROSU, 0.5 mg and 40 mg given orally for 14 days); 3) emtricitabine with tenofovir disoproxil plus colchicine and rosuvastatin at the same doses and for the same period of time (FTC/TDF+COLCH+ROSU); or 4) the Colombian consensus standard of care, including a corticosteroid (SOC). The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality. A modified intention-to-treat analysis was used together with a usefulness analysis to determine which could be the best treatment. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04359095.

FINDINGS: Out of 994 candidates considered between August 2020 and March 2021, 649 (65.3%) patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in this study; among them, 633 (97.5%) were included in the analysis. The mean age was 55.4 years (SD ± 12.8 years), and 428 (68%) were men; 28-day mortality was significantly lower in the FTC/TDF+COLCH+ROSUV group than in the SOC group, 10.7% (17/159) vs. 17.4% (28/161) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.53; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.96). Mortality in the FTC/TDF group was 13.8% (22/160, HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.20) and 14.4% in the COLCH+ROSU group (22/153) (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.36). A lower need for invasive mechanical ventilation was observed in the FTC/TDF+COLCH+ROSUV group than in the SOC group (risk difference [RD] - 0.08, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.04). Three patients presented severe adverse events, one severe diarrhoea in the COLCH+ROSU and one in the FTC/TDF+COLCH+ROSU group and one general exanthema in the FTC/TDF group.

INTERPRETATION: The combined use of FTC/TDF+COLCH+ROSU reduces the risk of 28-day mortality and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with pulmonary compromise from COVID-19. More randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the effectiveness and cost of treatment with this combination versus other drugs that have been shown to reduce mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection and its usefulness in patients with chronic statin use.

PMID:34957385 | PMC:PMC8686571 | DOI:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101242

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