Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2021 Dec 3:106490. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2021.106490. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASI) appears necessary to realize the full benefits of rapid diagnostic technologies in clinical practice. This study aimed to compare clinical outcomes between early ASI paired with MALDI-TOF compared to MALDI-TOF with standard of care (SOC) reporting in patients with positive blood cultures.
METHODS: Adult patients with positive blood cultures and organism speciation via MALDI-TOF admitted between 2/2015 and 9/2015 were randomized to ASI or SOC in a 1:1 fashion. Patients admitted for at least 48 hours following positive culture were included in analyses. ASI was defined as a clinical assessment by a stewardship team member with non-binding treatment recommendations offered to the primary team. The primary outcome was time to definitive therapy. Secondary outcomes included post-culture length of stay (LOS), time to first change in antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS: A total of 149 patients were included in analyses (76 in the ASI group and 73 in the SOC group). ASI and SOC arms did not differ according to age, sex, comorbidities, or severity of illness. Gram-positive organisms were common in both SOC and ASI arms (74.0 vs 61.8%, p=0.11). Time-to-definitive therapy was reduced, on average, by 30.3 hours in the ASI group (71.6 vs. 41.3 hours, p=0.01). Hospital LOS following the first positive blood culture was significantly shorter in the ASI group (8.7 vs. 11.2 days, p=0.049).
CONCLUSIONS: ASI combined with MALDI-TOF reduced the time to definitive therapy, time to first change in antibiotics, and was associated with a shorter post-culture LOS.